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Opinion and insight from our expert business team.


Concepts: 51 Pecentage Attack

A 51% attack is a way for attackers to seize control of a blockchain’s block minting process, validate fraudulent blocks, and steal money from the chain’s users, usually by double-spending more…

Gunnar Jaerv

22 October 2021
5 minute read
11 October 2021 FDT Explorer: How DAOs Bring Trustlessness To The Organization

DAOs are organizations that promise to do for the internal structure of businesses what the digital assets space did for global finances.

29 September 2021 Concept: Smart Contracts

Smart contracts underlie many of the most productive new features of blockchains and blockchain-based platforms.

1 September 2021 Concepts: Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs)

DAOs are organizations where decisions emerge through consensus or formal votes, but without any centralized structure.

26 August 2021 Concept: Proof of Attendance Protocol (POAP)

Proof of Attendance Protocol sounds like proof-of-X blockchain consensus protocol

24 August 2021 FDT Explorer: After EIP-1559, What Has Changed?

EIP-1559 was supposed to address rising Ethereum gas fees, driven by increasing interest in NFTs and DeFi applications running on the network.

19 August 2021 Concepts: Moore's Law

Moore’s Law postulates that the number of components that can be packed into an integrated circuit, like a microchip will double roughly every two years.

17 August 2021 FDT Explorer: Digital Assets and Section 80603 Of The Infrastructure, Investment and Jobs Act

The US Senate passed a much-debated infrastructure bill on August 10.

12 August 2021 Guide: DeFi Regulations In Key Jurisdictions Including India, China, The US and Singapore

DeFi is currently one of the best yield sources on the planet for investors.

6 August 2021 FDT Explorer: Half a billion dollars in Ethereum moved in ten hours: where it came from, where it went, and why

On August 1 this year, about $500,000,000 worth of ETH was moved from wallets to exchanges, or from exchanges to wallets, in just a few hours and a small number of transactions.

29 July 2021 FDT Explorer: Digital Asset Regulation Changes Around The World

Digital asset regulation has changed rapidly in the last few months, with profound effects on wider markets as well as on the digital assets space itself.

27 July 2021 Guide: MiCA and Other Regional Digital Asset Markets

MiCA, the EU’s prospective bloc-wide regulation for digital assets companies, is under review now.

22 July 2021 FDT Explorer: What Happens When All The Bitcoins Have Been Mined?

Bitcoin depends on a vast network of mining equipment: computers able to perform complex cryptographic work very quickly, to “discover” and validate new blocks and mint new Bitcoins.

15 July 2021 Concepts: SPACs

SPACs have become a preferred way for some companies to go public without the difficulties of a traditional IPO, and without the strong market presence that direct listing requires.

13 July 2021 Guide: The OECD's Minimum Corporate Tax

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development is based in Paris, and has 38 member countries. Because those counties are the world’s economic powerhouses, the OECD often leads the way, forming the nucleus of larger alliances.

8 July 2021 FDT Explorer: How Will DeFi Attract Investors?

Decentralized finance, or DeFi, is a young industry.

6 July 2021 FDT Explorer: Polkadot’s Parachain Auctions

Polkadot first came to the attention of the wider world when it leapt into the top five most valuable digital assets in the world in April this year.

1 July 2021 Concepts: Economic Utility

In marketing and sales, a common phrase is ‘sell the sizzle, not the steak.’ In other words, sell the appetizing aspects of the product, not what it actually is.

29 June 2021 Concepts: Altcoins

Altcoins are ‘Alternative coins’ — that is, alternatives to the dominant Bitcoin, still in the running to become the Hoover of digital assets.

24 June 2021 Concepts: Mimetic Theory

Classical economics presupposes that we’re all rational, individualistic entities, making economic choices that maximally benefit us; homo economicus.

22 June 2021 Concepts: Adoption Curves

Adoption curves show us the stages in which uptake of a new technology grows.

17 June 2021 Understanding The Health and Growth Potential of an Industry

We’ve looked at how we can understand the health of a national economy. But what about individual industries and sectors, like farming, manufacturing, or construction?

15 June 2021 Concept: Supply and Demand (and price)

Supply and demand is a basic economic concept, so basic that we usually talk about these things without defining them.

10 June 2021 How Do We Know If An Economy Is Doing Well?

Economic and financial news and analysis often talks as if we can know for sure how well an economy is doing.

8 June 2021 Concepts: Securitization

Securitization is a way to package the cashflow from assets, including obligations, and sell them on to investors.

4 June 2021 FDT Explorer: What Caused BTC to Lose So Much of Its Value, and What’s Coming Next?

Bitcoin, the leading digital asset with 46% of the sector’s total market value, has had an unusually volatile week — even for this unusually volatile asset.

1 June 2021 Concepts: Commingling

Commingling assets can give brokers, investors large and small, and the whole financial system significant advantages. It does come with risks, though they can be mitigated; and it might have application for digital assets.

27 May 2021 Guide: What The Public Consultation on AML Means for Digital Asset Businesses and Investors

Following a consultation last year, the Hong Kong FSTB has released a proposal paper indicating the changes it thinks should be made to Hong Kong law as it applies to companies that deal with digital assets.

25 May 2021 Guide: Corporate Treasury Services and The Movement to Digital Assets

The business environment is more unpredictable than ever before, with innovation competing with the unprecedented nature of the pandemic.

20 May 2021 Concept: The Greater Fool Theory

The greater fool theory states that as an investor, you can buy stocks or other investment targets that are clearly over-valued, and still make money.

19 May 2021 Concepts: Rehypothecation

Rehypothecation is a way of generating credit from assets, and allows multiple financial transactions to be collateralized by the same asset. How this works is a little counter-intuitive, though, and there are systemic risks involved too.

13 May 2021 When We All Go Back to Normal, It Won’t Be Normal Anymore

A return to normality was the dominant theme of the first year of the Coronavirus pandemic. Announcements by politicians, columns by pundits and conversations between friends and colleagues made constant reference to it.

11 May 2021 Concepts: Ethereum Virtual Machine

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a quasi-Turing complete, distributed computational network; a blockchain cloud computer. What does all this mean, how does the EVM work and what are its limitations?

3 May 2021 Is The DeFi Boom Another ICO Bubble?

DeFi is the most rapidly-growing use for blockchain technology.

22 April 2021 Concepts: The Principal-Agent Problem

The principal-agent problem arises when a principal has an agent who is able to make decisions on their behalf. That’s the principal-agent relationship.

20 April 2021 Concepts: Ethereum Improvement Proposals

EIPs are in the news, with the publicity around EIP-1559 drawing attention from non-technical Ethereum users, curious investors and observers alike.

14 April 2021 Guide: The Upcoming Coinbase IPO

Coinbase, the largest digital asset exchange in the US, has announced plans to go public on April 14.

13 April 2021 Guide: How to Tokenize Your Assets

Asset tokenization creates a digital representation of an asset on a blockchain, meaning they can be freely traded and securely stored.

8 April 2021 The Financial Action Task Force Will Regulate DeFi

The Financial Action Task Force, the global Anti-Money Laundering (AML) authority, issued new guidance on Decentralized Finance (DeFi).

6 April 2021 Concepts: Polkadot

Polkadot’s (DOT) increased in price by 73% in just over two weeks.

1 April 2021 Concepts: The Cantillon Effect

The Cantillon effect describes the velocity of money through the economy, and the uneven effect its diffusion has on prices, wages and inflation.

29 March 2021 Concepts: Game Theory

Game theory is a way of creating a simplified interactive environment — a “game” — that lets us model how people and entities will respond.

24 March 2021 FDT Explorer: Ethereum gas fees are getting too high. What’s the solution?

Ethereum is the blockchain of choice for tokens, and for the increasingly large number of DeFi projects that use the network to generate returns for their investors and themselves.

18 March 2021 FDT Explorer: Looking back on the ICO boom

Just a few short years ago, ICOs promised to change the way investment was done.

16 March 2021 Concepts: Ethereum Gas Prices

Ethereum gas prices are in the news, but what is gas, why do you have to pay for it to use Ethereum, and why are gas prices so high right now?

11 March 2021 Concepts: Metcalfe’s Law

Metcalfe’s Law is a way of describing the usefulness of networks. Roughly put, Metcalfe’s Law states that the more users a network has, the more valuable it is to each individual user.

8 March 2021 1DT Explorer: Non-Fungible Tokens

One of the biggest selling points for tokenization on the blockchain is the fungibility of tokens.

2 March 2021 What are Institutional Investors looking for in the Digital Asset space?

Investment in the digital assets space increasingly comes from institutional investors.

1 March 2021 Digital Assets: BTC as The World’s Reserve Currency

Nations, cities and corporations all keep currency and assets in reserve, to preserve their value and to use for transactions with other similar entities.

19 February 2021 Concepts: Free Trade, Pins and the Invisible Hand - An Inquiry into Adam Smith

Adam Smith is the founder of modern economics. Before him, there was little effort to discover exactly how some countries became wealthier, some people more prosperous, than others. And in part this is because there was little need.

16 February 2021 Uncommon Stocks: The GameStop Story

GameStop is a computer games retail store, facing an uphill struggle in the days of lockdowns and downloadable games.

23 January 2021 Concepts: The Economic Consequences of John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes built on the ideas of Irving Fisher to propose a solution to the shortcomings of free markets that left the markets themselves mostly intact.

14 January 2021 2020 Roundup: The Year in Digital Assets, Finance and Economics

2020 was the year when states around the world got serious about digital assets. Some regulated them, some banned them, and some set about creating their own; many created clearer regulatory frameworks.

6 January 2021 As Sweden weighs the ‘e-Krona,’ what do CBDCs mean for the digital assets space?

Sweden is considering switching from its national currency, the Krona (Crown) to a digital equivalent: a stablecoin backed by the state’s fiat currency, referred to as a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC).

2 December 2020 Concepts: The Austrian School

The Austrian school of economics gave us concepts like opportunity cost, and called for a currency immune to inflation and central bank control.

28 November 2020 Concepts: Gresham’s Law

Gresham’s law states that bad money drives out good. But how can that happen, and what does it mean for modern economics and for digital assets investors?

3 November 2020 Can Digital Assets Solve the Problems of Modern Banking?

Whether retail or commercial, bank customers have their expectations shaped by a world of always-available, instantly-actioned tech. Payment apps and social media, communications and productivity, are all now non-local, device-agnostic and semi-automated.

21 October 2020 Concepts: ERC-721

ERC 721 Tokens is a technical standard used for non-fungible tokens, also known as deeds.

11 October 2020 Concepts: ERC-20

ERC 20 Tokens is a technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain for implementing tokens.

5 October 2020 The Strange Death and New Life of Cash

Cash money, once the self-evident standard of reliable exchange, is difficult to come by now. Where has it gone and what does the future hold?

28 September 2020 Concepts: Fractional Reserve Banking

Today’s banking system operates on a system called Fractional Reserve Banking. It’s the same interlocking system all over the world, and you might be surprised when you look under the hood and see how it actually works.

18 September 2020 DeFi: What Can the Case of YAM Teach Us About Yield Farming?

DeFi is the hottest newcomer to the burgeoning digital assets economy. With enormous growth in assets tied up in the system, it offers a tantalizing glimpse of high-reward investment.

28 August 2020 Concepts: Fiat Currency

Fiat money is money that government has decided is legal tender. Unlike a currency based on assets, fiat money is backed by a country’s whole economy.

17 August 2020 Concepts: Consensus Algorithms in Blockchain

On Blockchain, there is no central entity validating and verifying the transactions, yet every transaction on Blockchain is considered to be trusted and verified. What makes this possible?

13 August 2020 Leading Institutional Digital Asset Safekeeping Platforms in 2020

Picking a crypto safekeeping platform can be an arduous task. In this post, we’ll look over the best technologies currently available for digital asset custody.

10 August 2020 Concepts: Tokenized Securities

Securities can and are being issued on blockchain. What are the relevant touch-points with the regulation?

7 August 2020 MPC or HSM: Who Would Win?

Digital assets storage, custody and transactions require different approaches from traditional assets.

24 July 2020 US Banks Can Custody Digital Assets, Says OCC

On July 22, the US Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announced that it would let all chartered banks in the USA custody digital assets.

19 June 2020 What is Equity Investing?

An equity investment is any investment in a company that is made by purchasing shares of that company in the stock market.

14 June 2020 Hong Kong's LPF Regime Gives Investors an Alternative to the Caymans

Hong Kong is introducing a Limited Partnership for Funds (LPF) regime to support funds operators in the region and meet rising demand as previously available offshore solutions lose their appeal.

8 June 2020 Digital Assets Payments Systems: An Overview

Digital assets payment systems work by transferring digital tokens between accounts on a blockchain. At its most basic, this is how Bitcoin works.

4 June 2020 Digital Asset Custody and Trading Regulations: An Overview

Digital assets are increasingly coming to the attention of regulators and legislators at the national and supranational levels.

1 June 2020 Institutional Investment in Digital Assets

The market for digital assets has undergone several profound transformations since the 2009 release of the Bitcoin white paper.

27 May 2020 Hong Kong’s IRD Issues Guidance on Digital Asset Taxation

On March 27, 2020, Hong Kong’s Inland Revenue Department (IRD) issued its revised Departmental Interpretation and Practice Notes (DIPN) No. 39, laying out how the department was to treat various actors in Hong Kong’s tech and financial sectors.

25 May 2020 Concepts: Airdrop

An airdrop is a distribution of free digital assets to multiple addresses/accounts. The term comes from computer games and from there to the military, meaning supplies dropped from an aircraft.

20 May 2020 Alternative Investments Diversify Portfolios and Avoid Turbulence

An alternative investment is one that isn’t a stock or bond. Traditionally, ownership in companies was the most valuable asset with ownership of their debt a close second.

15 May 2020 Digital Assets Custody Technology

Custody for the digital assets space relies on progress and integration in two key areas: structure and technology.

1 April 2020 Concepts: Tokenization

Tokenization Asset tokenization is the process of creating tokens that stand in for a specific fraction of the value of an asset.

11 March 2020 What Is Coin Burn?

When you read a headline saying that a company has “burned” half its coins, as Stellar recently did, what actually happens? Why would a company destroy its assets in this way, and how does the process work technically?

26 February 2020 The Digital Asset Custody Landscape

Digital asset custody is a relatively young industry, yet it’s bootstrapping its way into maturity fast, based on increasing investment from institutional investors and the model of the extant traditional custody and trust world.